Putting on hair – Trichology and History
Getting hair is one of the fashions that more patients have moved in the last 15 years, having an exponential growth year after year. With the arrival of the FUE technique, in our case Safir FUE, and its improvements, recover hair (you can read more about recovering hair by clicking here) becomes the aesthetic version of men and some women, for their good results, managing to eliminate the clearings of the scalp. But before giving more data, we went on to define what is trichology?
Trichology is the science that studies hair and scalp. It is included in dermatology; it includes specialized areas such as capillary dermatology, capillary or aesthetic surgery, capillary parasitology, hair genetics, biology, psychology or nutrition, etc. In trichology, the aesthetic factor is very important, as the state of the hair is very visible to the environment, so the person can be traumatized.
Trichology is one of the sciences related to the relatively modern human body (19th century in Victorian England). Until that moment it was thought that the hairs were secretions of the body. Aristotle in the fourth century a.C. He considered hair to be a kind of waste that hardened on contact with air. In the Middle Ages they believed that hair was another way of escape for the impurities of the organism. With the studies of human anatomy of the s. XIX hair structure was shown and hair functions were exposed.
What is a Trichogram?
The Trichogram is a deep and detailed analysis of a person’s hair; makes it possible to make a personalized diagnosis. It is about extracting hair and analyzing it through the microscope. The information that contributes: the different forms and states in which the hair is found, as well as its growth phases and details such as the color and shape of the bulb, its degree of angulation or the diameter of the hair shaft. In short, the trichogram is the fundamental to make a good diagnosis for a future hair treatment.
Negative results in hair transplantation
One of the purposes of hair transplantation is to recover the hair of the patient with the best possible natural result when putting on hair.
However, there have been negative results due to:
1) Very large or very marked implants (Doll hair)
The use of a 4 mm punch (now oscillating between 0.4 and 0.8 mm) generated, until the 80s, a surge of patients operated with unnatural results. From the 90s the technique evolved and the results were more natural. Generally, the density obtained with a hair implant must be greater than 50% of the natural density of the patient’s original hair. The density of hair grafted onto large fragments is excessive because in addition to the original density there is a contraction of the grafts themselves. This excess of grafts produces a very dense image in each graft in between a very visible scalp. You see a concentration of hair and, instead, you see unpopulated areas; This is known as “doll hair”.
2) Front line of the capillary implant too low or too thick
The position of the hairline in a mature man is usually placed one finger above the upper edge of the frontalis muscle.
It is necessary to avoid placing the frontal line very low, since the appearance would not look very natural and the result does not last long term due to the natural progression of the hair backwards and, consequently, the increase of the alopecic area.
3) Hair implanted incorrectly
Hair grows in different directions depending on each area of the head
Both in the front part and in the central part of the head, the hair grows in different directions clearly defined, changing to a radial growth shape when we approach the crown area.
The hair of the head always comes out at a sharp angle, increasing the sharpness as it approaches the temples. We must take into account and respect the direction of hair growth depending on the areas where it will be implanted to obtain a result with the greatest naturalness.
The implants tend to straighten a bit during healing, which is why they should be placed more angulated. If the implants are placed at a right angle, the visible results are bad, seem artificial and make it difficult to comb.
4) Too large alopecia areas
In general terms, it is necessary to avoid covering the areas where the hair falls before, such as the crown and front area. This will make it possible to give priority to giving greater density to other areas in order to have a more lasting effect, and then cover the rest.
The two areas discussed will continue to evolve over time, so that alopecia will continue to progress and, if hair has been implanted, it could result in the implant in the area remaining as an island with hair, surrounded by an alopecic ring.
The priority area to repopulate is the frontal-anterior, because when the hair of this area is lost the person loses the facial limit and is more uncomfortable. The arrangement of this area is the one that has the greatest aesthetic effect.
5) Scars in the donor or donor area
The smaller the follicular graft, the smaller and less visible is the scar. Over-healing:
- affects the degree of resistance of the implanted hair and blood flow
- can modify the direction of hair growth and the initial characteristics of the follicle
- can cause hair loss implanted.
If the scars are very marked they can cause areas with relief and concavity
With the Safir FUE technique surgery is avoided and scars remain, some very marked that have required a subsequent surgical treatment to reduce them, because they were very visible and the client could not wear very short hair.
6) Poor donor area
It is one of the main causes that limits the intervention because it can not extract all the follicles that the patient needs. A second intervention can be performed after one year and re-populate another area of the head.
7) Overfill of Micrografts
This effect occurs when too large follicular implants are introduced under pressure and a kind of relief remains on the scalp, where the implant is placed, which contrasts with the area of the scalp that surrounds it.
The hair cycle
The phases are: birth, growth and fall, called anagen, catagen, telogen respectively:
- ANAGEN Phase: It is the first phase of growth. It lasts between 3 and 7 years and you can notice a constant increase of approximately one centimeter per month. In this step, the formation of all the structures is observed, such as the hair papilla, the bulb, the sebaceous gland, the erector hair muscle and the follicle. There is also the synthesis in melanin granules of fusiform melanocytes, present in the deep part of the bulb matrix. It deposits in the cells of the cortex of the hair and moves upward as it grows. The anagen phase is shorter at the temples, compared to the hair of the neck. In follicles with hair loss the anagen phase lasts for 3 to 5 months (and thus reach a maximum length of 3-5 cm).
- CATÁGENA Phase: It is the second phase of the hair cycle. Its duration is between 2 and 3 weeks. It is the phase of involution, in which the hair, already formed, grows towards the upper layers of the epidermis, moving away from the papilla of the hair. The follicle is in a resting phase. The papilla decreases in size.
- TELÓGENA Phase: Lasts between 2 and 3 months. It is the terminal phase, during which the hair is still in the hair follicle, but the vital tasks are completely stopped. This hair, already “dead”, before falling still remains on the scalp for a while, but, even with a modest traction (not painful), it falls off. The cycle begins again with the anagen phase.