Atatürk’s Reforms () were a series of political, legal, cultural, social, and economic policy changes that were designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state. Central to these reforms were the belief that Turkish society would have to Westernize itself both politically and culturally in order to modernize. Political reforms involved a number of fundamental institutional changes that brought end of many traditions, and followed a carefully planned program to unravel the complex system that had developed over the centuries. The reforms were implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in accordance with Kemalist ideology. Reforms began with the modernization of the constitution, including enacting the new Constitution of 1924 which replaced the Constitution of 1921, and the adaptation of European laws and jurisprudence to the needs of the new republic. This was followed by a thorough secularization and modernization of the administration, with particular focus on the education system. Historically, Atatürk’s reforms follow the Ottoman Empire’s Tanzimât period, meaning reorganization, that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. Another set of social, economic, and administrative reforms set forward under the accession of Turkey to the European Union which was made on 14 April 1987.
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