The Master of Music (M.M. or M.Mus.) is the first graduate degree in Music awarded by universities and music conservatories. The M.Mus. combines advanced studies in an applied area of specialization (usually music performance, composition, or conducting) with graduate-level academic study in subjects such as music history, music theory, or music pedagogy. The degree, which takes one or two years of full-time study to complete, prepares students to be professional performers, conductors, and composers. The M.Mus. is often required as the minimum teaching credential for university, college, and conservatory instrumental or vocal teaching positions.