Master of Medicine (MMed) is a postgraduate academic degree awarded by medical schools to physicians following a period of instruction and examination. The degree is awarded by both surgical and medical subspecialties and usually includes a dissertation component involving original research. The degree may complement an existing fellowship in the chosen specialty or be the sole qualification necessary for registration as a specialist. The following universities in the following countries are known to award MMed degrees, in the following subjects, as of May 2009: