Mongol invasions and conquests progressed throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which, by 1300, covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe. Historians regard the Mongol raids and invasions as some of the deadliest conflicts in human history. According to Brian Landers, “One empire in particular exceeded any that had gone before, and crossed from Asia into Europe in an orgy of violence and destruction. The Mongols brought terror to Europe on a scale not seen again until the twentieth century.” Diana Lary contends that the Mongol invasions induced population displacement “on a scale never seen before”particularly in Central Asia and eastern Europeadding that “the impending arrival of the Mongol hordes spread terror and panic.” In addition, they brought the bubonic plague along with them, deliberately spreading it across much of Asia and Europe and helping cause the massive loss of life in the Black Death. Tsai concludes that “[t]he Mongol conquests shook Eurasia and were of significant influence in world history.” The Mongol Empire emerged in the course of the 13th century by a series of conquests and invasions throughout Central and Western Asia, reaching Eastern Europe by the 1240s. Tartar and Mongol raids against Russian states continued well beyond the start of the Mongol Empire’s fragmentation around 1260. Elsewhere, the Mongols’ territorial gains in China persisted into the 14th century under the Yuan dynasty, while those in Persia persisted into the 15th century under the Timurid dynasty. In India, the Mongols’ gains survived into the 19th century as the Mughal Empire.
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