Rûm (Arabic pronunciation: [ˈruːmˤ]; singular Rûmi), also transliterated as Roum (in Arabic الرُّومُ ar-Rûm; in Persian and Ottoman Turkish روم Rûm; in Turkish: Rum), is a derivative of the term Ῥωμαῖοι (Rhomaioi). The latter was an endonym of the pre-Islamic inhabitants of Anatolia, the Middle East, and the Balkans, dating to when those regions were parts of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire. The term Rûm is now used to describe: