An Overview of Turkey

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a contiguous transcontinental parliamentary republic largely located in Western Asia with a portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeastern Europe. Eight countries border Turkey: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Iran, and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south.

The Mediterranean Sea is to the south, the Aegean Sea is to the west, and the Black Sea is to the north. The Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus, and the Dardanelles (which form the Turkish Straits) demarcate the boundary between Thrace and Anatolia, separating Europe and Asia. Turkey’s location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia makes it a country of significant geostrategic importance.

It is known for its ancient history and culture, as well as its stunning landscapes, cities, and monuments. This article will provide an overview of Turkey’s history, culture, economy, geography, and other interesting facts.


Turkey has been inhabited since the paleolithic age, including various ancient Anatolian civilizations, Aeolian and Ionian Greeks, Thracians, and Persians. After Alexander the Great’s conquest, the area was Hellenized, which continued with Roman rule and the transition into the Byzantine Empire.

The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, starting the process of Turkification, which was greatly accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, upon which it disintegrated into several small Turkish beyliks.

Starting from the late 13th century, the Ottomans united Anatolia. They created an empire encompassing much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, becoming a major power in Eurasia and Africa during the early modern period. The empire reached the peak of its power between the 15th and 17th centuries, especially during the 1520–66 reign of Suleiman the Magnificent.

After the second Ottoman siege of Vienna in 1683 and the end of the Great Turkish War in 1699, the Ottoman Empire entered a long period of decline. The Tanzimat reforms of the 19th century, which aimed to modernize the Ottoman state, proved inadequate in most fields and failed to stop the dissolution of the empire. The Ottoman Empire entered World War I (1914–18) on the side of the Central Powers and was ultimately defeated.

During the war, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians, and Pontic Greeks. Following WWI, the huge conglomeration of territories and peoples formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states.

The Turkish War of Independence (1919–22), initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues in Anatolia, resulted in the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.

Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. The country’s official language is Turkish, a Turkic language is spoken natively by approximately 85 percent of the population. 70–80 percent of the population are ethnic Turks; the remainder are legally recognized (Armenians, Greeks, and Jews) and unrecognized (Kurds, Circassians, Albanians, Bosniaks, Georgians, etc.) minorities. The vast majority of the population is Muslim.

Turkey is a member of the UN, NATO, OECD, OSCE, OIC, and the G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995, and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005. Turkey’s growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have recognized it as a regional power.


The culture of Turkey is largely based on its native traditions with some influences from Middle Eastern cultures such as Arabic and Persian.

The cuisine features many dishes that are popular throughout the region, such as kebabs (meat skewers), dolmas (stuffed vegetables), mezes (appetizers), pilafs (rice dishes), Turkish delight (a sweet candy), baklava (a dessert pastry), Turkish coffee served with foamy cream on top, and apple tea.

Music is also very important in Turkish culture; traditional music played on instruments like lutes, or drums can be heard throughout cities like Istanbul or Ankara, while modern pop music is popular among younger generations.

Turks also love to dance, and popular dances like the halay, a lively circle dance, are often performed in traditional settings. Traditional attire like colorful clothing, fez hats, and embroidered vests are common in festivals and celebrations.


Turkey has also become a major educational hub with some of the most prestigious universities in the region, such as Istanbul University and Boğaziçi University. Many top-ranked schools offer international programs in various disciplines, giving students from around the world an opportunity to study in Turkey.

The country has many public and private universities, technical schools, and specialized vocational schools. These educational institutions offer courses in engineering, medicine, science, art, and other fields. Additionally, various professional and certificate programs can help students specialize in their chosen fields.

Turkey also presents educational opportunities in research and innovation, such as those offered by the Turkish Science and Technology Research Institute (TUBITAK) and the Istanbul Technical University (ITU). These institutions provide access to advanced laboratories and research centers, enabling students to participate in cutting-edge research.

The country also boasts many international programs for foreign students, including exchange and study abroad opportunities that allow them to gain valuable experience in the Turkish educational system.


Turkey has a developing economy, considered one of the largest economies in Central Europe and Eurasia. Its main exports are mineral fuels, machinery products, textiles, chemicals, fertilizers, and foodstuffs. Tourism plays an important role in its economic development due to its vast historical sites and beautiful Mediterranean coastline dotted with resorts.

Turkey is not only known for its healthcare, but it has also become a leading destination when it comes to wellness tourism. From hot springs to yoga retreats, the country boasts plenty of options for people looking to take care of their mental and physical health while on vacation

Turkey also has a well-developed banking system, with state-owned banks such as Ziraat Bankası, Halkbank, and VakıfBank operating alongside foreign-owned banks such as Garanti Bankası and İş Bankası.

The country also has a vibrant stock exchange (BIST) home to some of the region’s largest companies. Turkey’s economy is highly dependent on the export of goods and services, making it vulnerable to shifts in global demand. Its population is young and growing quickly, which presents opportunities and challenges for the future.

Medical Tourism in Turkey

Medical tourism is also becoming increasingly popular as more and more people travel to Turkey for its world-class hair transplant surgeons and clinics. And also much different esthetic surgery like rhinoplasty, dental implantation, breast augmentation, liposuction, and more.

Turkey is also a great destination for Spa treatments, with luxurious Turkish hammams and its wide array of natural herbal remedies. With such medical advantages, the country offers an attractive option for those seeking medical treatments at competitive prices.

In addition to these, one can find excellent healthcare in some of Istanbul’s most modern hospitals, which offer state-of-the-art facilities for procedures such as orthopedic surgery, cosmetic dentistry, and much more.

Hair Transplants in Turkey

Before deciding on hair transplant surgery in Turkey, please read the articles by Dr. Mehmet Demircioglu. He is a highly respected specialist in the field of hair transplantation, and he can provide you with cost information, procedure details, and other important related information.

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Diamond Hair Clinic & Dr.Mehmet Demircioglu

Dr. Mehmet Demircioglu is the founder of Diamond Hair Clinic, one of the world’s best hair transplant surgeons. He has performed hair transplants on patients from all over the world with excellent results. Dr. Demircioglu is highly skilled in the latest techniques and technologies in hair transplant and deeply understands hair follicles’ physiology. This allows him to produce natural-looking and long-lasting results for his patients.

Diamond Hair Clinic is a reputable and affordable option for hair transplant surgery, attracting patients worldwide. With Turkish medical care being so globally renowned and Istanbul being such a hotspot for tourists, Diamond Hair Clinic has established itself as a top choice since 2012.

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