The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: İstiklâl Harbi, literally “Independence War” or Kurtuluş Savaşı literally “Liberation War” or Milli Mücadele literally “National Campaign” ; May 19, 1919 – July 24, 1923) was fought between the Turkish nationalists and the proxies of the Allies, namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, Great Britain and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul), after the country was occupied and partitioned following the Ottoman Empire‘s defeat in World War I. Although present, almost all British, French, Italian and Georgian troops were not deployed or engaged in combat. The Turkish National Movement (Kuva-yi Milliye) in Anatolia culminated in the formation of a new Grand National Assembly (GNA; ) by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues. After the end of the Turkish-Armenian, Franco-Turkish, Greco-Turkish wars (often referred to as the Eastern Front, the Southern Front, and the Western Front of the war, respectively), the Treaty of Sèvres was abandoned and the Treaty of Lausanne was signed in July 1923. The Allies left Anatolia and Eastern Thrace, and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey decided the establishment of a Republic in Turkey, which was declared on October 29, 1923. With the establishment of the Turkish National Movement, the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, and the abolition of the sultanate, the Ottoman era and the Empire came to an end, and with Atatürk’s reforms, the Turks created the modern, secular nation-state of Turkey on the political front.
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